I’ll be frank, I don’t have all the details on this but the findings are clear on this animated gif. If you watch carefully, you can see the pulsation artifact at the site of leak. There is a rent in the dura and pseudomeningocele in the dorsal soft tissues.
I’m guessing this was a laminectomy for a bony septum producing symptoms. I have seen these on myelography where the dye pours out as soon as it’s injected.
That’s a lot of adenopathy. So much so that it might be a 50/50 mix of normal organs to LAN. There is also an acute segmental PE in the RLL. You have to look hard on the GIF to find it.
I can’t remember ever seeing axillary adenopathy this severe.
Another extreme case. Biggest and most asymmetric alveolar ridge maxillary tori I’ve seen.
Don’t think I’ve ever seen one quite this large and without a displaced fracture. Impressive.
I have seen PVT enough to know that it is:
- Frequently missed
- Can have bad consequences of portal venous hypertension
- Management is a bit of a conundrum for clincians and rads.
- Who to consult?
- Vascular surgery
- When to follow-up if at all?
- Additional studies
- Is an abdominal doppler needed?
- Fraught with difficulty because of the commonly associated cirrhosis and bleeding potential due to PVH/Varices.
One of my former colleagues and fellowship trained body imager missed this diagnosis leading to bad sequela of PVH a year later in a young patient.
In the images below, I have windowed the CT narrowly to show the contrast between the normal attenuation arterial system and the thrombosed portal venous system. This makes it hard to see the fat and some of the secondary findings of PVH. The coronal images below show a more normal window, but are harder to make sense of.
I’m presuming this patient has some hypercoagulable state since the patient already has an IVC filter.
I can’t say I remember ever seeing this physiology at contrast injection before. I’d say the contrast injector is doing the vast majority of pumping in this patient.
The salient points are:
- Insane volume overload with effusions, ascites and anasarca.
- Injected contrast barely even makes it into the RV.
- Contrast refluxes into the azygos vein which is common.
- What is unusual is reflux through the coronary sinus into the posterior basal segment lower lobe pulmonary veins opacifing the collapsed lung parenchyma.
- But contrast does not stop there… There is reflux into all 3 hepatic veins and into the posterior right hepatic lobe parenchyma, the right adrenal veins, and the right renal veins producing a branching pattern that could be mistaken for excreted contrast if not for the unilaterality.
- There is even contrast into retroperitoneal veins and lumbar veins.
In sum, cardiac output could probably be measured with a TB syringe.
Very good demonstration of colovesical fistula. This almost certainly represents a ruptured diverticulum forming abscess that then extended into the urinary bladder. Although typically the communications are assessed either via cystogram, enema or both, this may not require further evaluation given the CT findings, depending on the comfort of the surgeon.